Access control basics

In this section, we’re going to set up a simple access control rule for restricting querying on a table. We’re working with a simple author table where users have some information stored about themselves.

Create a table

Head to your console and create a table called author with the following schema:

author (
  name TEXT

Now, insert some sample data into the table using the Insert Row tab of the author table.

Try out a query

Head to the GraphiQL tab in your console and try out the below query:

query {
  author {

You’ll see that this results in a response that contains all the authors because by default the GraphQL query is accepted with admin permissions.

Add a simple access control rule for a logged in user

Let’s say that we want to restrict users to fetch only their own data.

Head to the Permissions tab of the author table.

Now add a select access control rule for the user role on the author table:

This rule reads as:

Definition Condition Representation
allow user to access only their own row id in the row is equal to user-id from the request session variable
  "id": {
    "_eq": "X-Hasura-User-Id"

Now, let’s make the same query as above but also include two dynamic authorization variables X-Hasura-Role and X-Hasura-User-Id via request headers. These will automatically get used according to the permission rule we set up.

You can notice above how the same query now only includes the right slice of data.

Defining access control rules

Access control, or permission rules can be as complex as you need them to be, even using a nested object’s fields if required. You can use the same operators that you use to filter query results to define permission rules. See filtering query results for more details.

For example, for an article table with a nested author table, we can define the select permission as:

        "published_on": { "_gt": "31-12-2018" }
        "author": {
          "id": { "_eq": "X-Hasura-User-Id" }

This rule reads as: allow selecting an article if it was published after “31-12-2018” and its author is the current user.

Note: The operators _has_keys_all and _has_keys_any are currently not supported in permission rules

Restrict access to certain columns

We can restrict the columns of a table that a particular role has access to.

Head to the Permissions tab of the table and edit the Select permissions for the role:

Limit number of rows returned in a single request

We can set a hard limit on the maximum number of rows that will be returned in a single request for a table for a particular role.

Head to the Permissions tab of the table and edit the Select permissions for the role:

More about permissions

Next: Roles and dynamic variables